Present perfect is a grammar tense that causes a lot of problems for learners and results in lots of mistakes.
It is difficult for students to separate the past simple and the present perfect in their mind.
Often it is because there is no direct translation for present perfect in students' own mother tongue language.
The best way to think about these tenses is this:
When you are thinking/speaking/writing about an action from the past that has definitely finished, then use the PAST SIMPLE.
EXAMPLE: We went shopping yesterday ('yesterday' tells you that the action has definitely finished)
But, if the action was, or started, in the past and somehow it connects up to now, the present, then that you should use the present perfect tense.
EXAMPLE: We have been shopping already today but we need to go back to the supermarket this afternoon because we forgot some things.
You can understand from this sentence that the time 'today' has not finished yet, because this person is speaking about 'this afternoon'. So therefore, 'today' has not finished... it is probably around midday.
The person speaking is thinking about the past and how it connects continuously up to the present moment.
This is classic present perfect grammar! :)
Best of luck with today's present perfect v past simple grammar challenge!
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